What IS GIS?
This is probably the most asked question posed to those in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) field and is probably the hardest to answer in a succinct and clear manner.
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be regarded as the high- tech equivalent of the map. GIS is a rapidly growing technological field that incorporates graphical features with tabular data in order to assess real-world problems.
The key word to this technology is Geography - this usually means that the data (or at least some proportion of the data) is spatial, in other words, data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Coupled with this data is usually data known as attribute data. Attribute data generally defined as additional information, which can then be tied to spatial data. An example of this would be schools. The actual location of the schools is the spatial data. Additional data such as the school name, level of education taught, school capacity would make up the attribute data. It is the partnership of these two data types that enables GIS to be such an effective problem-solving tool.
GIS operates on many levels. On the most basic level, GIS is used as computer cartography, i.e. mapping. The real power in GIS is through using spatial and statistical methods to analyze attribute and geographic information. The end result of the analysis can be derivative information, interpolated information or prioritized information.
An individual map contains a lot of information, which is used in different ways by different individuals and organizations. It represents the means of locating ourselves in relation to the world around us. Maps are used in diverse applications from locating telephone wires and gas mains under our streets, to displaying the extent of de-forestation in the Brazilian Amazon.
The map has been in existence in much the same form for thousands of years. In the traditional form it suffers from a number of problems. Firstly maps are static and therefore difficult and expensive to keep up to date. This relates to a second problem, in that because they are static they lose flexibility, for example maps exist as discrete sheets and inevitably your area of interest lies on the corner of four adjacent sheets. In addition maps are often very complex and may require an expert to extract the particular data which are of interest.
GIS provides the facility to extract the different sets of information from a map (roads, settlements, vegetation, etc.) and use these as required. This provides great flexibility, allowing a paper map to be quickly produced, which exactly meets the needs of the user. However, GIS goes further, because the data are stored on a computer, analysis and modeling become possible. For example, one might point at two buildings, ask the computer to describe each from an attached database (much more information than could be displayed on a paper map) and then to calculate the best route between these.
Other Quotes defining GIS
"In the strictest sense, a GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations. Practitioners also regard the total GIS as including operating personnel and the data that go into the system." USGS
"A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen on earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps." ESRI
"GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware, software, and trained personnel linking topographic, demographic, utility, facility, image and other resource data that is geographically referenced." NASA
A Little History of GIS
What is now the GIS field began around 1960, with the discovery that maps could be programmed using simple code and then stored in a computer allowing for future modification when necessary. This was a welcome change from the era of hand cartography when maps had to be painstakingly created by hand; even small changes required the creation of a new map. The earliest version of a GIS was known as computer cartography and involved simple line work to represent land features. From that evolved the concept of overlaying different mapped features on top of each other to determine patterns and causes of spatial phenomenon.
The capabilities of GIS are a far cry from the simple beginnings of computer cartography. At the simplest level, GIS can be thought of as a high-tech equivalent of a map. However, not only can paper maps be produced far quicker and more efficiently, the storage of data in an easily accessible digital format enables complex analysis and modeling not previously possible. The reach of GIS expands into all disciplines and has been used for such widely ranged problems as prioritizing sensitive species habitat to determining optimal real estate locations for new businesses.
What do you need to use GIS?
Hardware comprises the equipment needed to support the many activities of GIS ranging from data collection to data analysis. The central piece of equipment is the workstation, which runs the GIS software and is the attachment point for ancillary equipment. Data collection efforts can also require the use of a digitizer for conversion of hard copy data to digital data and a GPS data logger to collect data in the field. The use of handheld field technology is also becoming an important data collection tool in GIS. With the advent of web-enabled GIS, web servers have also become an important piece of equipment for GIS.
Different software packages are important for GIS. Central to this is the GIS application package. Such software is essential for creating, editing and analyzing spatial and attribute data, therefore these packages contain a myriad of GIS functions inherent to them. Extensions or add-ons are software that extends the capabilities of the GIS software package. For example, Xtools is an ArcView extension that adds more editing capabilities to ArcView 3.x. Component GIS software is the opposite of application software. Component GIS seeks to build software applications that meet a specific purpose and thus are limited in their spatial analysis capabilities. Utilities are stand-alone programs that perform a specific function. For example, a file format utility that converts from on type of GIS file to another. There is also web-GIS software that helps serve data through Internet browsers.
Data is the core of any GIS. There are two primary types of data that are used in GIS. A geodatabase is a database that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Geodatabases are grouped into two different types: vector and raster. Coupled with this data is usually data known as attribute data. Attribute data generally defined as additional information, which can then be tied to spatial data. Documentation of GIS datasets is known as metadata.
Well-trained people knowledgeable in spatial analysis and skilled in using GIS software are essential to the GIS process. There are three factors to the people component: education, career path, and networking. The right education is key; taking the right combination of classes. Selecting the right type of GIS job is important. A person highly skilled in GIS analysis should not seek a job as a GIS developer if they haven't taken the necessary programming classes. Finally, continuous networking with other GIS professionals is essential for the exchange of ideas as well as a support community.